As per the UNFC system, as on 1.4.2010, total
Antimony and its alloys find numerous applications in a wide range of high technology industries like electronic, space and defence, photographic materials, electroplating, besides cosmetic, paint, plastics and textile industries. Traditionally, it is used in type metal and other alloys. It is now used extensively worldwide to harden and increase the mechanical strength of lead, particularly in battery industry. Antimony trioxide is the most important of the antimony compounds and is primarily used in flame-retardant applications, including such markets,as children's clothing, toys, aircraft and automobile seat covers. Antimony sulphide is one of the ingredients of safety matches. It is also used as a decolourising and refining agent in glass industry. Antimony compounds may be used in pharmaceuticals. It is also used in semi-conductors for making infrared detectors, diodes and acoustic devices. Combination of tin, calcium, copper(copper processing equipment), selenium, cadmium, strontium and sulphur are among the substitutes used as hardeners for lead used in batteries. Low maintenance batteries have shifted to use of calcium as additive to substitute for antimony. Antimony can be replaced by organic compounds or hydrated aluminium oxide in flame- retardants and by tellurium and selenium in rubber manufacturing. Compounds of titanium, zinc, chromium, tin and zirconium may be substituted for antimony chemicals in paints, pigments and enamels. Antimony products can be used as stabilizers in specialised plastics. Development of electric vehicles could lead to the use of high antimony batteries because of their deep cycling characteristics. Antimony semiconductors have possible use in aircraft night vision systems and in space-based astronomy. The antimonial lead scrap extracted from the spent lead acid storage batteries is recycled largely from and for storage battery industry. Antimony has found a new use in the manufacture of DVDs. The world reserves of antimony are 2.1 million tonnes in terms of metal content. Antimony reserves are located mainly in China, which contribute about 38% to the total reserve base followed by Thailand (20%), Russia (17%), Bolivia (15%), South Africa (2%) and Tajikistan (2%). The world production of antimony metal(antimony ore grinding machine for sale) decreased to 179,000 tonnes in 2009 as against 199,000 tonnes in the previous year. China was the main producer of antimony accounting for about 92% of world production. Russia, Bolivia, South Africa and Kyrgyzstan were the other important producers. China dominates the world antimony production. Hsikwangshen Twinkling Star Antimony Co. is China's largest antimony metal and trioxide producer. However, an accident halted all underground operations in Hsikwangshan main mine. The company has two smelters, both with a capacity of 1000 t/month. There are known to be more than 100 small antimony producers in Hunan accounting for 10,000 to 20,000 tpy. Exports of antimony alloys and scrap was 32 tonnes in 2009-10 against 57 tonnes in the previous year. Exports were mainly to Nigeria and USA. Imports of antimony ores and concentrates increased to 898 tonnes in 2009-10 from 476 tonnes in the previous year. Imports were mainly from South Africa. Imports of antimony alloys and scrap in 2009-10 were 927 tonnes compared to 967 tonnes in the previous year. Imports were mainly from China (71%) and Vietnam (12%),pulverizer manufacturers in India,(pulverizer manufacturers in India ).